Bermuda Excess Liability Insurance

In the 1980s, there was no such insurance company that could provide coverage for excess liability. This was an increasing requirement from the large corporations of the US. So in 1985, ACE Limited was established in Bermuda to provide such coverage. There were 34 U.S companies who represented the board and had shareholding in ACE. They contributed the initial capital of $250 million. ACE initially started offering only excess liability coverage, however subsequently the coverage for officers and directors were also added in its offer. 
As per the company constitution of ACE, initially it could offer the excess liability coverage only to its share holding companies. So in a way it was a captive insurance for excess liability. However, later the portfolio was extended to cover other companies as well. 
In 1986, another excess liability insurance company called XL Capital Ltd. was formed in Bermuda based on the same principles as ACE. XL offered similar coverages at lower attachment points than ACE.  
Also the same year, Corporate Officers and Directors Assurance Ltd. (CODA) was established in Bermuda to provide a much wider range of coverage for directors and officers of large corporations. The global broker Johnson &áHiggins had created CODA along with some of its clients formed this insurance company because of lack of such coverage at the time. 
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